For writings by which the movement that is antilynching and systematically analyzed US mob violence, see Ida B. Wells, Southern Horrors and Other Writings:…
… The Anti-lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892–1900, ed. Jacqueline Jones Royster (Boston, 1997); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Thirty several years of Lynching in america, 1889–1918 (1919; nyc, 1969); Arthur F. Raper, The Tragedy of Lynching (Chapel Hill, 1933); and Walter White, Rope and Faggot: A Biography of Judge Lynch (1929; Notre Dame, 2001). Ida B. Wells and her campaign against lynching have actually spawned respected scholarship in the last few years. See, as an example, Paula J. Giddings, Ida: A Sword among Lions; Ida B. Wells together with Campaign against Lynching (ny, 2009); James western Davidson, “They Say”: Ida B. Wells and also the Reconstruction of Race (ny, 2008); Patricia A. Schechter, Ida B. Wells-Barnett and American Reform, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill, 2000); and Angela D. Sims, Ethical problems of Lynching: Ida B. Wells’s Interrogation of United states Terror (ny, 2010). For early twentieth-century social technology research on lynching, see James Elbert Cutler, Lynch Law: a study in to the reputation for Lynching in america (1905; ny, 1969); Paul Walton Ebony, “Lynchings in Iowa, ” Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 10 (April 1912), 187–99; Paul Walton Ebony, “Attempted Lynchings in Iowa, ” Annals of Iowa, 11 (Jan. 1914), 260–85; Genevieve Yost, “History of Lynchings in Kansas, ” Kansas Quarterly that is historical (might 1933), 182–219; John Dollard, Caste and Class in a Southern Town ( brand New Haven, 1938); and Frank Shay, Judge Lynch: their First 100 years (nyc, 1938). Richard Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology regarding the United states Frontier, 1600–1860 (Middletown, 1973); Richard Maxwell Brown, Strain of Violence: historic Studies of United states Violence and Vigilantism (ny, 1975); H. John Rosenbaum and Peter C. Sederberg, Vigilante Politics (Philadelphia, 1976). C. Vann Woodward, Origins associated with the brand New Southern, 1877–1913 (Baton Rouge, 1951). Regarding the neglect of lynching in southern historic scholarship until the belated 20th century as well as on the awakening of general general general public curiosity about mob physical physical violence in present decades, see W. Fitzhugh Brundage, “Conclusion: Reflections on Lynching Scholarship, ” in Lynching Reconsidered: New Perspectives into the research of Mob Violence, ed. William D. Carrigan (ny, 2008), 205–18, esp. 213.
Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, Revolt against Chivalry: Jesse Daniel Ames together with ladies’ Campaign against Lynching (1979; nyc, 1993), xx–xxi. See also Jacquelyn Dowd Hall, “‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’: Females, Rape, and Racial Violence, ” in Powers of want: The Politics of sex, ed. Ann Barr Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson (ny, 1983), 328–49. Robert L. Zangrando, The naacp Crusade against Lynching, 1909–1950 (Philadelphia, 1980), 18. James R. McGovern, Anatomy of the Lynching: The Killing of Claude Neal (Baton Rouge, 1982); Howard Smead, Blood Justice: The Lynching of Mack Charles Parker (ny, 1986). For an instance study of the north lynching, see Dennis B. Downey and Raymond M. Hyser, No Crooked Death: Coatesville, Pennsylvania plus the Lynching of Zachariah Walker (Urbana, 1991); and Dennis B. Downey and Raymond M. Hyser, Coatesville as well as the Lynching of Zachariah Walker: Death in a Pennsylvania metal Town (Charleston, 2011). Joel Williamson, The Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations into the American South since Emancipation (nyc, 1984), 306–10. The National Conscience, and the American Historian, ” ibid., 1221–53; and “Referees’ Reports: Edward L. Ayers, David W. Blight, George M. Frederickson, Robin D. G. Kelley, David Levering Lewis, and Steven M. Stowe, ” ibid., 1254–67 for profound generational shifts in southern historiography, especially in approaches to violence, gender, and race, see David Thelen, “What We See and Can’t See in the Past: An Introduction, ” Journal of American History, 83 (March 1997), 1217–20; Joel Williamson, “Wounds Not Scars: Lynching. Trudier Harris, Exorcising Blackness: Historical and lynching that is literary Burning Rituals (Bloomington, 1984). For another interpretation of lynching, emphasizing battle and ritual, see Orlando Patterson, Rituals of Blood: The effects of Slavery in Two US Centuries (nyc, 1998), 169–231.
George C. Wright, Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865–1940: Lynchings, Mob Rule, and “Legal Lynchings” (Baton Rouge, 1990), 8–9, 11–13, 251. W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Lynching into the New Southern: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930 (Urbana, 1993), 15. See also W. Fitzhugh Brundage, ed., Under Sentence of Death: Lynching when you look at the Southern (Chapel Hill, 1997). Edward L. Ayers, The Promise associated with New Southern: Life after Reconstruction (nyc, 1992), 156–57, 495–96n69. On white mob physical physical violence when you look at the context of this connection with African Us citizens when you look at the Jim Crow Southern, see Leon Litwack, difficulty in your mind: Ebony Southerners within the Age of Jim Crow (nyc, 1999). Stewart E. Tolnay and E. M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: a research of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930 (Urbana, 1995), 99–100, 256–57.
For a work that includes study of nonsouthern areas and a quick but discussion that is suggestive of physical violence prior to the Civil War, see Philip Dray, In the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Ebony America (ny, 2002). Michael J. Pfeifer, harsh Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1878–1946 (Urbana, 2004). On lynching as well as the death penalty in postbellum Tennessee and Florida, see Margaret Vandiver, Lethal Punishment: Lynchings and Legal Executions into the Southern ( New Brunswick, 2006). On lynching within the Midwest and also the western and its particular relationship to southern lynching, see Michael J. Pfeifer, “Introduction, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie: United states Mob Violence away from Southern, ed. Michael J. Pfeifer (Urbana, 2013), 1–12. For a cross-regional analysis of mob physical violence and capital punishment in U.S. History, see Howard W. Allen, Jerome M. Clubb, and Vincent A. Lacey, Race, Class, while the Death Penalty: Capital Punishment in United states History (Albany, 2008).
William D. Carrigan, The generating of a Lynching society: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836–1916 (Urbana, 2004), 12–15. Michael J. Pfeifer, The Roots of harsh Justice: Origins of American Lynching (Urbana, 2011). For social analysis of authorities torture of African Us americans within the mid-twentieth-century South, see Silvan Niedermeier, “Violence, Visibility, and also the Investigation of Police Torture into the American South, 1940–1955, ” in Violence and Visibility in Modern History, ed. Jurgen Martschukat and Silvan Niedermeier (ny, 2013), 91–92.
Probably the most accurate count available is almost 2,500 African Us citizens were murdered by lynch mobs from 1882 through 1930 in Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana, Alabama, sc, Florida, Tennessee, Arkansas, Kentucky, and new york.
See Tolnay and Beck, Festival of Violence, ix. This tally excludes six states which were wholly or partly southern inside their historical development. Tuskegee Institute information enumerates an overall total of 793 lynching victims between 1882 and 1968 in 6 states regarding the periphery that is southern Virginia, western Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Texas. See Zagrando, naacp Crusade against Lynching, 4. Ken Gonzales-Day, Lynching into the western: 1850–1935 (Durham, N.C., 2006).